In November 2005, APHIS announced the development of an enhanced classical swine fever surveillance program in collaboration with the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN). The goals of this surveillance program are to rapidly detect CSF in the US swine population, monitor the risk of introduction of CSF into the swine population and monitor the CSF status of US trading partners.
Rapid detection of CSF
Rapid detection of CSF in the United States requires testing of certain swine populations. The swine populations targeted for testing include swine highly suspicious for CSF, swine samples submitted to the animal disease diagnostic laboratories from high risk states, pigs condemned at slaughter and wild pigs.
Swine highly suspicious for CSF
These swine are currently exhibiting the clinical signs of CSF which may include anorexia (unwillingness to eat), huddling, weakness, lethargy, ataxia (incoordination), high fever and constipation followed by diarrhea. Swine with these clinical signs on the farm or at slaughter are to be referred to the State Veterinarian for appropriate CSF testing.
Samples submitted to the animal disease diagnostic laboratory from high risk states
Any sample submitted to the animal disease diagnostic laboratory from a high-risk state is eligible for testing through the NAHLN. States considered high risk for CSF are those that have wild pig populations, garbage feeding operations, backyard swine operations, international air or seaports and farms that utilize international labor.
Pigs condemned at slaughter
Any pig condemned by a Food Safety and Inspection Service agent at slaughter for having the clinical signs of erysipelas or septicemia shall be tested for CSF. These diseases have similar clinical signs as CSF.
Wildlife Services officials will routinely sample wild pigs for signs of CSF.
Monitor risk of introduction of CSF
CSF may be introduced into the US swine population via imported, infected live pigs, artificial insemination products, contaminated garbage used as feed, access to landfills where contaminated meat can be consumed or contact with an infected wild pig. In order to protect the US herds, APHIS will continuously monitor herds that import live pigs or artificial insemination products, pig producers that live on the US-Mexico border, swine producers that feed garbage and herds that employ international workers.
Monitor US trading partners for CSF: Currently, the United States only accepts live swine and pork imports from countries that have been designated free from CSF by the World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE). In addition, if a member nation of the European Union has a CSF outbreak, the US will consider all member nations of the European Union to be involved with the outbreak. As a result, the US will prohibit the import of all pork and pork products from the European Union for 6 months past the containment and eradication of the CSF affected swine.
In order to protect the swine herd from becoming infected with an exotic animal disease such as CSF, swine producers are urged to take the following measures:
- Isolate incoming animals from the rest of the herd and monitor for clinical signs of disease
- Follow an All In/All Out strategy of pig management and disinfect the facilities between groups
- Require visitors to wear clean boots and coveralls before coming in contact with the herd
- Properly clean and disinfect livestock trucks and trailers before entry into the farm
- Dispose of carcasses promptly and correctly
- Provide lunch for employees
- Do not allow employees to have contact with any swine outside the herd
- Have an effective rodent and insect control program